S4V2G: Services for Electriv Vehicles to SmartGrid connection
Objectives: Active rule of the driver smartphone for the optimization of the energy distribution with smart interaction between driver-EV-EVSE and smart grid to reduce the impact of EV recharge on power grid. Additional services (smatphone app): reservation, GPS navigation, Automatic payment (NFC ), Real time information on battery charge and recharge status, …
- Several car manufacturers recently started selling Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) that can be recharged using power grid. Actually a limitation in the diffusion of FEV is the lack of FEV charging infrastructure in spite of the large diffusion of electrical infrastructure. A massive diffusion of FEV has a strong impact on the electric power grid
- A fundamental aspect to be addressed in the design of the charging infrastructure is the interaction between the driver, the vehicle and the infrastructure. The intelligent interaction between driver, vehicle and infrastructure, required for the charging of FEV, can be used to furnish additional services such as traffic and travel management, access in restricted areas of the city, car sharing, parking payment, and fidelity cards for shopping centers that provide parking with battery recharging [1-2]. The ISO/IEC joint working group on vehicle to grid communication interface (V2G CI)  is working in the ISO/IEC 15118 standard for the communication between electric vehicle and power grid.
- The optimization of the energy distribution is obtained only with an intelligent interaction between the agents:
- Driver requirements:
- fast recharge
- low energy cost
- Smart power grid requirements:
- energy space and time distribution to keep
- Energy generation = Energy request
- Vehicle requirements:
- optimal battery recharge during time to increase battery lifetime
- avoid current, voltage or temperature peaks that can destroy the battery
- Driver requirements:
- Additional services for a sustainable mobility:
- Traffic management for safety and efficiency
- GPS navigation systems with
- real time traffic information
- map of the recharging stations
- actual battery status and autonomy prediction
- Car sharing
- Parking payment
- Fidelity services: recharge discount in a parking lot of a mall
Many different types of connections can be established between driver, vehicle and infrastructure for the control, management and billing of the recharge. We propose the use of a smart phone with Bluetooth connection and Near Field Communication (NFC).
- Electric Vehicle: it has a wired plug-in connection with the charging station and a wireless connection with the charging station and driver’s smart phone to share information on the charging process. The charging controller of the vehicle monitors the current state of charge, the predicted end of charge, the capacity of the battery, the actual charging speed and other information inside the car.
- Driver’s smart phone: it identifies the driver to the other agents. The driver controls the charging process through the smart phone using a Bluetooth and NFC connection.
The user, through the smart phone, performs a secure authentication of the driver itself with charging station, enabling the billing process. The user defines the amount of charge required and the recharging speed on the basis of the actual charge status of the battery, of the time the user have at disposal, of the cost that depends on the charging station, the charging power required, the energy at disposal of the power grid company in that moment.
- Charging station: enables interoperability with all types of electrical vehicles, establishes a secure connection with the vehicle and driver’s smart phone, verifies the authentication of the user before delivering energy, provides to the user information on the cost, maximum suppliable power, provides methods for automatic payment and billing systems.
- Power Grid: electrical energy cannot be stored in and efficient way, the power grid must deliver energy from different types of energy sources to the users to balance supply with demand.
- DBMS and Info point web site: the database of central management service of the company that delivers electric power to the FEV stores the data of user enabled to use the charging stations, with all billing information and additional services.
- Mobile Network: the cellular mobile network delivers telephony services, and additional mobile services such as Assisted-GPS, real time traffic information, navigation to charging stations.
- GPS satellite: the knowledge of the location enables the user to have additional to the services.